It is not effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chloramphenical penetrates well into cerebrospinal fluid, and receives occasional usage for meningitis—especially when caused by H.
Resistance to chloramphenicol is mainly due to the production of a specific inactivating chloramphenicol acetyltransferase CAT. Tetracycline and derivatives Demeclocycline Chlortetracycline Oxytetracycline Tetracycline. Chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol inhibit bacterial protein synthesis and have bacteriostatic activity.
Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic agent that binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit. No way exists to predict who may or may not get this side effect. Superficial infections of the skin caused by susceptible bacteria.
It crosses the placenta well and can reach therapeutic concentrations in the fetus. Chloramphenicol palmitate and chloramphenicol sodium succinate must be hydrolyzed to chloramphenicol before antimicrobial activity can take place.
Pazdernikin Molecular Biology Second Edition4. Tulkensin Infectious Diseases Fourth Edition Chloramphenicol may also theoretically interfere with antibody production in active immunization procedures. Archived from the original on 26 July Please refer to this blog post for more information. In many countries, use of chloramphenicol in any form, including topical and ophthalmic preparations, is prohibited in food-producing animals.
In gram-negative bacteria, resistance to chloramphenicol may also be due to reduced drug uptake mediated by chromosomal mutations or by acquired resistance genes. Resistance-conferring mutations of the 50S ribosomal subunit are rare.
It is one of only a few antibiotics that require a dosage reduction in liver disease Table 2 but not in renal insufficiency. Reversible, dose-related nonregenerative anemia can occur in dogs and cats. Pentamycetin, Chloromycetin, others . Neonates who weigh more than 2 kg and are age 7 days and older: In dogs florfenicol is poorly absorbed after SC administration. Monoacetylated and diacetylated derivatives are unable to bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit and to inhibit the prokaryotic peptidyltransferase.
Pharmacodynamics Chloramphenicol is bacteriostatic.
Stop drug immediately if results indicate anemia, reticulocytopenia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia. Typhi that lack specific outer-membrane proteins such as OmpF also can be resistant to chloramphenicol.
Chloramphenicol is relatively toxic, and can cause severe agranulocytosis. Chloramphenicolstreptomycin, and kanamycin are all antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the bacterial ribosomes. Out of 16 patients only five received the usually recommended dosage.