It is available as the monohydrochloride monohydrate salt of 1-cyclopropylfluoro-1,4-dihydrooxo 1-piperazinyl quinoline-carboxylic acid. A history of hypersensitivity to other quinolones may also contraindicate the use of ciprofloxacin. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitation measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, intravenous antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines and airway management, as clinically indicated.
In nine patients, exact resolution days were unavailable; however, at follow-up examinations, days after onset of the event, complete resolution of the precipitate was noted.
As a sterile ophthalmic solution: Eight in vitro mutagenicity tests have been conducted with ciprofloxacin and the test results are listed below:. Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be active in vitro against most strains of the following organisms, however, the clinical significance of these data is unknown: After daily oral dosing for up to two years, there is no evidence that ciprofloxacin had any carcinogenic or tumorigenic effects in these species.
If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be initiated.
It is not known whether topically applied ciprofloxacin is excreted in human milk; however, it is known that orally administered ciprofloxacin is excreted in the milk of lactating rats and oral ciprofloxacin has been reported in human breast milk after a single mg dose. Escherichia coli Haemophilus ducreyi Haemophilus parainfluenzae Klebsiella pneumoniae Klebsiella oxytoca Legionella pneumophila Moraxella Branhamella catarrhalis Morganella morganii Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis Pasteurella multocida.
Enterococcus faecalis Many strains are only moderately susceptible Staphylococcus haemolyticus Staphylococcus hominis Staphylococcus saprophyticus Streptococcus pyogenes. In clinical studies of patients with bacterial corneal ulcer, a white crystalline precipitate located in the superficial portion of the corneal defect was observed in 35 It is a faint to light yellow crystalline powder with a molecular weight of Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial active against a broad spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative ocular pathogens.
Each mL of ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution USP, 0. Haemophilus influenzae Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Ciprofloxacin should be discontinued at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity reaction.
The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from interference with the enzyme DNA gyrase which is needed for the synthesis of bacterial DNA. The onset of the precipitate was within 24 hours to 7 days after starting therapy. The minimal bactericidal concentration MBC generally does not exceed the minimal inhibitory concentration MIC by more than a factor of 2.
A systemic absorption study was performed in which ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution USP, 0. Whenever clinical judgment dictates, the patient should be examined with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy and, where appropriate, fluorescein staining.
No teratogenicity was observed at either dose. Long term carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have been completed.
However, the systemic administration of some quinolones has been shown to elevate plasma concentrations of theophylline, interfere with the metabolism of caffeine, enhance the effects of the oral anticoagulant, warfarin, and its derivatives and has been associated with transient elevations in serum creatinine in patients receiving cyclosporine concomitantly.
A topical overdose of ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution USP, 0.